Main Article Content
Many wetlands have experienced rapid degradation that is due to unstainable development practices globally. Oftentimes, uncoordinated economic development plans in wetlands and surrounding areas have affected the ecological functions of these sensitive ecosystems. This study examined Setiu Wetland, a wetland with diverse ecosystems on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The main objective of this study was to analyse the potential of marine spatial planning (MSP) to be adopted there. MSP is an integrated coastal zone management tool to govern conflicting uses of an area considering environmental sustainably. Like other coastal zone managements adopted in Southeast Asia, MSP requires participation and awareness of the local community to ensure sustainable development targets are achieved. This paper addresses the local community’s awareness of the ecosystem importance of Setiu Wetland and the socio-economic activities in the area. The study employed a quantitative approach using a survey method to examine, in particular, the local community’s awareness of the oyster habitat that has a direct impact on the Setiu Wetland ecosystems. The research findings indicate that awareness of the importance of oyster habitats to the wetland ecosystems is high among the local community. The community strongly supports the idea of protecting and preserving the wetland to ensure the healthy functioning of ecosystems.
JATI PUBLICATION ETHICS & PUBLICATION MALPRACTICE STATEMENT:
These guidelines are fully consistent with the COPE Principles of Transparency and Best Practice Guidelines and the COPE Code of Conduct (https://publicationethics.org).
We encourage the best standards of publication ethics and take all possible principles of transparency and measures against publication malpractices. The Department of Southeast Asian Studies, as the publisher, plays its role of guardianship over all processes of publishing seriously, and we perform our ethical and other tasks.
- General duties and responsibilities of editors
Editors should be accountable for everything published in their journals. This means the editors should strive to meet the needs of readers and authors; constantly improve their journal; have processes in place to assure the quality of the material they publish; champion freedom of expression; maintain the integrity of the academic record; preclude business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards; and always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed. In addition to these general duties, the editors accept the obligation to apply best will and practice to cope with the following responsibilities:
- Editorial Board
Will generate editorial board from recognized experts in the field. The editor will provide full names and affiliations of the members and updated contact information for the editorial office on the journal webpage.
- Duties of Reviewers
Contribution to Editorial Decisions
Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions, and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.
- Duties of Authors
Authors should follow the format of reporting the original research with accurate data gathered. The author should include sufficient detail and references to allow others to replicate the work. It is unacceptable if the author performs malpractices in the paper.
- Originality and Plagiarism
The authors should ensure that they have produced original articles and must appropriately cite or quote if the authors have used the work and words of others.
- Concurrent Publication
It is ethical and acceptable for an author to submit or publish the same research or manuscripts in more than one journal or primary publication.
- Acknowledging the Sources
Authors should cite properly publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.
- Paper authorship
Those who have contributed significantly to the paper should be named as an author and co-authors. Those who have participated in the aspects of the research should be listed as contributors. All co-authors should have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
- Announcement and Conflicts of Interest
All authors should include the financier or grant giver if the manuscript or research is financed by the research grant or any financial support body.
- Errors in published works
The author is responsible for communicating and co-operating with the editor to retract or correct the paper when a significant error or inaccuracy in their published work.
- Publication decisions
The editor should decide which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. The editor may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.
- Peer review process
All journal's content (articles) are subjected to a double-blind, peer-review process. Articles are first reviewed by editors and may be rejected because it is not dealing with the subject matter. Articles that are found suitable for review are then sent to two experts who are unknown to each other in the field of the paper.
Reviewers are asked to classify the paper as publishable, with amendments and improvements, or rejected. Reviewer's evaluations usually include what to do with the article. The author then sees the reviewer's comments.
Editors should be ready to justify any important points from the described process. Editors should not reverse decisions on publication. Editors should publish guidance to both authors and reviewers on everything expected of them. This guidance should be regularly updated and referred to or linked to this code.
- Fair play
The editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors. Editors' decision to accept or reject a paper for publication should be based only on the paper's importance, originality and clarity, and the study's relevance to the journal's aim.
- Digital Archiving
The editor will ensure digital access to the journal content by the University of Malaya Journal depository section at http://jati-dseas.um.edu.my and MyJournal at http://www.myjurnal.my/public/browse-journal-view.php?id=39.
Editor and any editorial staff must keep confidential all information about the manuscript's submitted and review process to anyone except the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.
- Publication and Submission fee
Authors are freed from fees or charges for manuscript processing. Authors pay neither submission nor publication fee beyond the eventual conference registration fee (in case of conference paper is accepted for publication).
- Open Access Policy
The journal is freely available online. Authors must agree with this open access policy which enables unrestricted access and reuse of all published articles. The articles are published under the Creative Commons copyright license policy CC-BY.
- Reporting standards
Authors of papers should present an accurate account of the work performed and an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the article. An article should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable. Review and professional publication articles should also be accurate and objective, and editorial 'opinion' works should be identified as such.
- Originality and Plagiarism
The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works and if the authors have used the work and words of others, this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
Abelshausen, B., Vanwing, T., & Jacquet, W. (2015). Participatory integrated coastal zone management in Vietnam: Theory versus practice case study: Thua Thien Hue province. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, 4(1), 42–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imic.2015.06.004
Affizah, N., Vedamanikam, V. J., & Shazilli, N. A. M. (2009). Concentration of arsenic and mercury in the oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) from Setiu lagoon, Terengganu. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 91(2), 259–265. https://doi.org/10.1080/02772240802166573
Akdeniz, D. (2017). Oyster symbolism in the art of painting. Journal of Social and Humanities Sciences Research, 4, 339–354. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407585022005An. N. T., Phung, N. K., & Chau, T. B. (2008). Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Vietnam: Pattern and Perspectives. Journal of Water Resources and Environmnetal Engineering, 23 (23), 297-304.
Aziz, N., Muhammad, Z., Farahdilah, G., Talaat, W. I. A. W., & Saputra, J. (2019). Marine Spatial Planning: The way forward for sustainable development of Central Terengganu, Malaysia. Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, 54(4), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.35741/issn.0258-27188.8.131.52
Azlisham, M., Vedamanikam, V. J., & Shazilli, N. A. M. (2009). Concentrations of cadmium, manganese, copper, zinc, and lead in the tissues of the oyster (Crassostrea iredalei) obtained from Setiu Lagoon, Terengganu, Malaysia. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 91(2), 251–258. https://doi.org/10.1080/02772240802138127
Badola, R., Barthwal, S., & Hussain, S. A. (2012). Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 96, 188–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2011.11.016
Bai, J., Cui, B., Cao, H., Li, A., & Zhang, B. (2013). Wetland degradation and ecological restoration. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 1-2. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/523632
Bakar, N. H. A., Jusoh, A., Ahmad, M. F., Noor, M. J. M. M., & Norzilah, A. (2016). A spatial nutrient distribution due to seabass aquaculture activities at Setiu, Terengganu, Malaysia. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 11(5), 332–348. https://doi.org/10.3923/jfas.2016.332.348
Barnette, P., & Wiwekwin, N. (2018). Integrated coastal management implementation and scaling up in Chonburi Province, Thailand. In C. Thia-Eng, C. L. Ming, G. Jacinto, S. A. Ross, & D. Bonga (Eds.), Local contributions to global sustainable agenda: Case studies in integrated coastal management in the East Asian seas region (pp. 469–482). Quezon City: Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA) and Coastal Management Center (CMC).
Bartel, S., & Janssen, G. (2016). Underground spatial planning – Perspectives and current research in Germany. Tunnelling And Underground Space Technology, 55, 112–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2015.11.023
Beeharry, Y., Makoondlall-Chadee, T., & Bokhoree, C. (2014). Policy analysis for performance assessment of integrated coastal zone management initiatives for coastal sustainability. APCBEE Procedia, 9, 30–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.01.006
Brander, L. M., Wagtendonk, A. J., Hussain, S. S., McVittie, A., Verburg, P. H., de Groot, R. S., & van der Ploeg, S. (2012). Ecosystem service values for mangroves in Southeast Asia: A meta-analysis and value transfer application. Ecosystem services, 1(1), 62-69.
Chang, Y., & Lin, B. (2016). Improving marine spatial planning by using an incremental amendment strategy: The case of Anping, Taiwan. Marine Policy, 68, 30–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.02.004
Chuang, Y. H., Yu, R. F., Chen, W. Y., Chen, H. W., & Su, Y. T. (2018). Sustainable planning for a coastal wetland system with an integrated ANP and DPSIR model for conflict resolution. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 26(6), 1015-1036.
Coen, L. D., Brumbaugh, R. D., Bushek, D., Grizzle, R., Luckenbach, M. W., Posey, M. H., Tolley, S. G. (2007). Ecosystem services related to oyster restoration. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 341, 303–307.
Crowder, L. B., Osherenko, G., Young, O. R., Airamé, S., Norse, E. A., Baron, N., Wilson, J. A. (2006, August). Resolving mismatches in U.S. ocean governance. SCIENCE, 313, 617–618. https://doi.org/10.1109/DSN.2017.15
Cruickshank, E. W., Schneeberger, K., & Smith, N. (Eds.). (2012). A pocket guide to sustainable development governance. n.p.: Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved from https://www.circleofblue.org/wp content/uploads/2012/07/PocketGuidetoSDGEdition2webfinal%E2%80%93Stakeholder-Forum.pdf
Davidson, N. C., Fluet-Chouinard, E., & Finlayson, C. M. (2018). Global extent and distribution of wetlands: Trends and issues. Marine and Freshwater Research, 69(4), 620–627. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF17019
Dernbach, J. C. (2003). Achieving sustainable development: The centrality and multiple facets of integrated decisionmaking. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 10(1), 247-285.
Domínguez-tejo, E., Metternicht, G., Johnston, E., & Hedge, L. (2016). Marine spatial planning advancing the ecosystem-based approach to coastal zone management: A review. Marine Policy, 72, 115–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.06.023
Douvere, F. (2008). The importance of marine spatial planning in advancing ecosystem-based sea use management. Marine Policy, 32, 762–771. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2008.03.021
Dunstan, P. K., Bax, N. J., Dambacher, J. M., Hayes, K. R., Hedge, P. T., Smith, D. C., & Smith, A. D. M. (2016). Using ecologically or biologically significant marine areas (EBSAs) to implement marine spatial planning. Ocean and Coastal Management, 121, 116–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.11.021
Dyke, F. V., & Lamb, R. F. (2020). Conservation biology: Foundations, concepts, applications. Cham: Springer.
Ehler, C. N., & Douvere, F. (2009). A step-by-step approach towards ecosystem-based management. Paris: UNESCO.
Ehler, C., Zaucha, J., & Gee, K. (2018). Maritime/marine spatial planning at the interface of research and practice. In J. Zaucha & K. Gee (Eds.), Marine spatial planning (pp. 1–22). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
French McCay, D. P., Peterson, C. H., DeAlteris, J. T., & Catena, J. (2003). Restoration that targets function as opposed to structure: Replacing lost bivalve production and filtration. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 264, 197–212. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps264197
George, M., Sabaruddin, J. S. H., & Chong, V. C. (2016). Marine spatial planning: What does it have to offer Malaysia? International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, 31(2), 242–278. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718085-12341397
Gerhartz-Abraham, A., Fanning, L. M., & Angulo-Valdes, J. (2016). ICZM in Cuba: Challenges and opportunities in a changing economic context. Marine Policy, 73, 69–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2016.07.009
Ghazali, N., & Hamzah, A. (2014, May 9-11). Preserving the uniqueness cultural landscape in Setiu Wetlands. Paper presented at the International Conference on Urban and Regional Planning (ICURP) 2014, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.
Gillies, C. L., Castine, S. A., Alleway, H. K., Crawford, C., Fitzsimons, J. A., Hancock, B., & zu Ermgassen, P. S. E. (2020). Conservation status of the oyster reef ecosystem of southern and eastern Australia. Global Ecology and Conservation, 22, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e00988
Govan, H., Tawake, A., & Tabunakawai, K. (2006). Community-based marine resource management in the South Pacific. Parks, 16(1), 63–67.
Hadi, S. P. (2018). Integrated community based coastal management: Lesson from the field. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 116(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/116/1/012064
Hagan, A. M. O., & Ballinger, R. C. (2010). Implementing integrated coastal zone management in a national policy vacuum: Local case studies from Ireland. Ocean and Coastal Management, 53(12), 750–759. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.014
Haron, N. F., Aziz, I., Ghani, H. A., & Amirah, N. A. (2020). Environmental awareness: Do people really concern about the Setiu Wetlands in Terengganu, Malaysia? International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 10(10), 1066–1079. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v10-i10/8268
Hoshino, E., van Putten, E. I., Girsang, W., Resosudarmo, B. P., & Yamazaki, S. (2017). Fishers’ perceived objectives of community-based coastal resource management in the Kei islands, Indonesia. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2017.00141
Hu, W., Yu, W., Ma, Z., Ye, G., Dang, E., & Huang, H. (2019). Assessing the ecological sensitivity of coastal marine ecosystems: A case study in Xiamen Bay, China. Sustainability, 11(22), 6372.
Ibrahim, I., Aziz, N. A., & Hanifah, N. A. (2012a). The laws of wetness: the legislative framework in Malaysia regarding wetlands conservation. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50, 574-581.
Ibrahim, I., Aminudin, N., Young, M. A., & Yahya, S. A. I. (2012b). Education for wetlands: Public perception in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 42, 159-165.
Ikhwanuddin, M., Azmi, W. A., Borkhanuddin, M. H., Muhammad, S. R. S., & Idris, I. (2017). Improving the health of setiu wetlands ecosystems and productivity of crustacean resources for livelihood enhancement. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 3, 1–7.
Jacobides, M. G., Cennamo, C., & Gawer, A. (2018). Towards a theory of ecosystems. Strategic Management Journal, 39(8), 2255-2276.
Jarvie, M. E. (2016, May 20). Brundtland Report. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Brundtland-Report
Kirby, M. X. (2004). Fishing down the coast: Historical expansion and collapse of oyster fisheries along continental margins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(35), 13096–13099. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0405150101
Liang, C. F., & Wang, H. Y. (2013). Feasibility of pulverised oyster shell as a cementing material. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/809247
Lillis, A., Eggleston, D. B., & Bohnenstiehl, D. R. (2013). Oyster larvae settle in response to habitat-associated underwater sounds. PLoS ONE, 8(10), 21–23. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079337
Mensah, J. (2019). Sustainable development: Meaning, history, principles, pillars, and implications for human action: Literature review. Cogent Social Sciences, 5(1), 1-21.
Mohd. Salim, Mohamad., F., & Shahrudin, R. (2015). Setiu: More than a wetland. In F. Mohamad, J. Mohd. Salim, J. Mohd. Jani, & R. Shahrudin (Eds.), Setiu Wetlands: Species, ecosystem and livelihoods (1st ed.). Kuala Terengganu: Penerbit Universiti Malaysia Terengganu.
Moomaw, W. R., Chmura, G. L., Davies, G. T., Finlayson, C. M., Middleton, B. A., Natali, S. M., ... & Sutton-Grier, A. E. (2018). Wetlands in a changing climate: science, policy and management. Wetlands, 38(2), 183-205.
Morris, J. P., Backeljau, T., & Chapelle, G. (2019). Shells from aquaculture: a valuable biomaterial, not a nuisance waste product. Reviews in Aquaculture, 11(1), 42–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12225
Najiah, M., Nadirah, M., Lee, K. L., Lee, S. W., Wendy, W., Ruhil, H. H., & Nurul, F. A. (2008). Bacteria flora and heavy metals in cultivated oysters Crassostrea iredalei of Setiu Wetland, East Coast Peninsular Malaysia. Veterinary Research Communications, 32(5), 377–381. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-008-9045-y
Newell, R. I. E., & Koch, E. W. (2004). Modeling seagrass density and distribution in response to changes in turbidity stemming from bivalve filtration and seagrass sediment stabilisation. Estuaries, 27(5), 793–806. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02912041
Ogunlesi, M., Okiei, W., Ofor, E., & Awonuga, O. (2009). Determination of the concentrations of zinc and vitamin C in oysters and some medicinal plants used to correct male factor infertility. Journal of Natural Products, 2, 89–97.
Omar, H., Husin, T. M., & Parlan, I. (Eds.). (2020). Status of mangroves in Malaysia. Kepong: Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hamdan-Omar-3/publication/344608859_STATUS_OF_MANGROVES_IN_MALAYSIA/links/5fd385c292851c13fe7ac0ad/STATUS-OF-MANGROVES-IN-MALAYSIA.pdf
Orban, E., Lena, G. Di, Nevigato, T., Casini, I., Marzetti, A., & Caproni, R. (2002). Seasonal changes in meat content, condition index and chemical composition of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) cultured in two different Italian sites. European Food Research & Technology., 226(6), 57–65. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-1113-3_7
Ozbay, G., & Smith, S. L. (2018). Are aquaculture practices sustaining our goal to restore oysters (Crassostrea virginica)? In G. Diarte-Plata & R. Escamilla-Montes (Eds.), Aquaculture - plants and invertebrates. London: IntechOpen. Retrieved from http://www.intechopen.com/books/trends-in-telecommunications-technologies/gps-total-electron-content-tec- prediction-at-ionosphere-layer-over-the-equatorial-region%0AInTec%0Ahttp://www.asociatiamhc.ro/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Guide-to-Hydropower.pdf
Padfield, R., Waldron, S., Drew, S., Papargyropoulou, E., Kumaran, S., Page, S., ... & Tham, M. H. (2015). Research agendas for the sustainable management of tropical peatland in Malaysia. Environmental Conservation, 42(1), 73-83.
Panawala, L. (2017). Difference between Scavenger and Decomposer. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320413590_Difference_Between_Scavenger_and_Decomposer
Parvin, G. A., Ahsan, S. M. R., & Shaw, R. (2010, January). Community-based coastal zone management in Bangladesh. Community and Coasatal Zone Management, 165–184.
Poh, S. C., Ng, N. C. W., Suratman, S., Mathew, D., & Tahir, N. M. (2019). Nutrient availability in the setiu wetland lagoon, Malaysia: Trends, possible causes and environmental impacts. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191(3), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-7128-y
Portman, M. E., Esteves, L. S., Le, X. Q., & Khan, A. Z. (2012). Improving integration for integrated coastal zone management: An eight country study. Science of the Total Environment, 439, 194–201.
Rodney, W. S., & Paynter, K. T. (2006). Comparisons of macrofaunal assemblages on restored and non-restored oyster reefs in mesohaline regions of Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 335, 39–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2006.02.017
Saleh, K. M., & Muslim, A. @ M. S. M. (2017). Monitoring land-use and land-cover change in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu, Malaysia using remote sensing and GIS. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, 102, 10–16. https://doi.org/10.7763/IPCBEE.
Santos, C. F., Ehler, C. N., Agardy, T., Andrade, F., & Orbach, M. K. (2019). Marine spatial planning. In C. Sheppard (Ed.), World seas: An environmental evaluation, Volume III: Ecological issues and environmental impacts (2nd ed.) (pp. 571-592). London: Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-805052-1.00033-4
Scouts. (2009). Project orion plants 1,000 mangroves in Malaysia. Retrieved from https://www.scout.org/id/node/6249
Selig, E. R., Mckinnon, M. C., Turner, W. R., Hole, D. G., Chu, J., Allison, E. H., Holland, M. B. (2019). Mapping global human dependence on marine ecosystems. Conservation Letter, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/conl.12617
SGP. (2021). The GEF Small Grants Programme. Wetland School of Setiu- Community Based Wetland Education and Awareness Center. Retrieved from https://sgp.undp.org/spacial-itemid-projects-landing-page/spacial-itemid-project-search-results/spacial-itemid-project-detailpage.html?view=projectdetail&id=29702
Shaharuddin, S., Chan, N. W., Zakaria, N. A., Ab. Ghani, A., Chang, C. K., & Roy, R. (2014). Constructed wetlands as a natural resource for water quality improvement in Malaysia. Natural Resources, 5(7), 292-298.
Suratman, S., Hussein, A. N. A. R., Tahir, N. M., Latif, M. T., Mostapa, R., & Weston, K. (2016). Seasonal and spatial variability of selected surface in Setiu wetland, Terengganu, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana, 45(4), 551–558.
Syerrina, Z., Naeim, A. R., Safiih, L. M., & Nuredayu, Z. (2017). Explorative spatial analysis of coastal community incomes in Setiu Wetlands: Geographically weighted regression. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 12(18), 7392–7396.
Teh, C. P., Zulfigar, Y., & Tan, S. H. (2012). Epinephrine and l-DOPA promote larval settlement and metamorphosis of the tropical oyster, Crassostrea iredalei (Faustino, 1932): An oyster hatchery perspective. Aquaculture, 338–341, 260–263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.01.014
Tsujimoto, M., Kajikawa, Y., Tomito, J., & Matsumoto, Y. (2018). A review of the ecosystem concept - towards coherent ecosystems design. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 136, 49-58.
Vaughan, D., & Agardy, T. (2020). Marine protected areas and marine spatial planning–allocation of resource use and environmental protection. In J. Humphreys & R. W. E. Clark (Eds.), Marine protected areas: Science, policy and management (pp. 13-35). n.p.: Elsevier.
Viñuales, J. E. (Ed.). (2015). The Rio declaration on environment and development: A commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
World Bank. (2009). World Development Indicators. Keeping the essentials flowing: promoting food security and sustainable livelihood through integrated coastal management. Retrieved from https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/584581502867051841/pdf/113386-WP-Casestudy-v1n1-batangas-PUBLIC.pdf.
Wan Mohd., W. R. (2013). Guest editorial: Pledge for the environment—25 years later. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 25(3), 273-277.
World Wildlife Fund (WWF). (2013). First turtle and terrapin mini gallery in Setiu to serve as information centre and ecotourism attraction. Retrieved from https://www.wwf.org.my/?15440/First
Yahya, N., Bachok, Z., Zakaria, N. Z., Mohd. Taufeq, Z., Rosli, N. S., & Bachok, Z. (2016). Ecology of bivalves in the lagoon area of Setiu. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 24(6), 2145–2151. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2016.24.06.23657
Yatim, M. H. M., Omar, A. H., Abdullah, N. M., & Sarip, A. (2018). Extending the concept of institutional analysis to the marine spatial planning practice. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 169(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/169/1/012010
Yayasan Diraja Sultan Mizan. (2018). Memorandum Yayasan Diraja Sultan Mizan mengenai pembangunan Tanah Bencah Setiu sebagai taman negeri dan warisan dunia. Retrieved from http://ydsm.my/?p=9503
Zedler, J. B. (2004). Compensating for wetland losses in the United States. Ibis, 146(Suppl. 1), 92–100. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2004.00333.x