Main Article Content
This article discusses how performing arts are used as tools in the monogit healing rituals of the Penampang Kadazan of Sabah. The monogit ritual is one of traditional Taqwim rice rituals. It is usually done for two or three years at a time or when someone in the community is ill or distressed. The ritual is implemented to ensure that the house spirit guardian (miontong) is at peace to make sure that everything will be as normal as usual. This ritual takes about four days and three nights administered by female traditional healers known as bobohizan headed by Bohungkitas. The gandang beat which leads the gong music known as sompogogungan (consisting of six gongs) together with the sumazau dance becomes part of the ceremony. The combination of the gandang beat with sompogogungan is believed to connect humans with the supernatural world. It is done by the bobohizan while reciting the mantra (inait) as the bobohizan’s escort to the supernatural world to meet, surprise and provoke the evil spirit to ask them to return the imprisoned human spirit. A dish known as pamanta is provided in the stage by stage performance according to pason (message/to inform), matang (awakening of the spirit), tumingak (provoking of the spirit), sayak (calling of the imprisoned spirit), mihung (calling to come closer), and sumonson (inviting to enjoy the dish). The pamanta gift is also done according to the process and certain sequence while the bobohizan does specific movements of the sumazau dance such as magampa (collection of illnesses), mundang (entertainment preparation), pasasazau do miontong (food serving), hoputan (return of the spirit) and monoinig (collection of imprisoned spirits). At certain times, the bobohizan who is under the appearance of sumazau is in a trance or has been possessed by miontong (nosuang) when her body moves strongly, full of energy and unusual. At this time, all the good and evil spirits are believed to be being entertained by the miontong which is the highlight of the ritual. Thus, the gandang beat from sompogogungan and the sumazau dance that have become important tools in the monogit ritual do not only combine elements of the Kadazan Penampang community’s traditional performing arts in the healing ritual but empower performing arts as a ritual tool. The dependence of healing ritual such as monogit to the presence of a traditional healer (bobohizan and bohungkitas), dish (pamanta), gandang beat, sompogogungan music and sumazau dance, very clearly empowers the ritual and traditional performing arts.
Keywords: Monogit, miontong, sompogogungan, healing ritual, and sumazau dance
JATI PUBLICATION ETHICS & PUBLICATION MALPRACTICE STATEMENT:
These guidelines are fully consistent with the COPE Principles of Transparency and Best Practice Guidelines and the COPE Code of Conduct (https://publicationethics.org).
We encourage the best standards of publication ethics and take all possible of principles of transparency and measures against publication malpractices. The Department of Southeast Asian Studies as the publisher plays its roles of guardianship over all processes of publishing seriously and we perform our ethical and other tasks.
- General duties and responsibilities of editors
Editors should be accountable for everything published in their journals. This means the editors should strive to meet the needs of readers and authors; constantly improve their journal; have processes in place to assure the quality of the material they publish; champion freedom of expression; maintain the integrity of the academic record; preclude business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards; and always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed. In addition to these general duties, the editors accept the obligation to apply best will and practice to cope with the following responsibilities:
- Editorial Board
Editorial board will be generated from recognized experts in the field. The editor will provide full names and affiliations of the members as well as updated contact information for the editorial office on the journal webpage.
- Duties of Reviewers
Contribution to Editorial Decisions
Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.
- Duties of Authors
Authors should follow the format of reporting the original research with accurate data gathered. The author should include sufficient detail and references to allow others to replicate the work. It is unacceptable if the author performs malpractices in the paper.
- Originality and Plagiarism
The authors should ensure that they have produced original papers, and must appropriately cite or quoted if the authors have used the work and words of others.
- Concurrent Publication
It is an ethical and acceptable for an author to submit or publish same research or manuscripts in more than one journal or primary publication.
- Acknowledging the Sources
Authors should cite properly publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.
- Paper authorship
Those who have made a significant contribution to the paper should be named as an author and co-authors. Those who have participated in the aspects of the research, they should be they should be listed as contributors. All co-authors should have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
- Announcement and Conflicts of Interest
All authors should include the financier or grant giver if the manuscript or research financed by the research grant or any financial support body.
- Errors in published works
The author is responsible for communicating and co-operating with the editor to retract or correct the paper when a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her published work.
- Publication decisions
The editor should be responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. The editor may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.
- Peer review process
All journal's content (articles) are subjected to a double-blind, peer-review process. Articles are first reviewed by editors and may be rejected because it is not dealing with the subject matter. Articles that are found suitable for review are then sent to two experts are unknown to each other in the field of the paper.
Reviewers are asked to classify the paper as publishable, publishable with amendments and improvements, or rejected. Reviewer's evaluations normally include the recommendation of what to do with the paper. Reviewer's comments are then seen by the author.
Editors should be ready to justify any important points from the described process. Editors should not reverse decisions on publication. Editors should publish guidance to both authors and reviewers on everything that is expected of them. This guidance should be regularly updated and will refer or link this code.
- Fair play
The editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors. Editors' decision to accept or reject a paper for publication should be based only on the paper's importance, originality and clarity, and the study's relevance to the aim of the journal.
- Digital Archiving
The editor will ensure digital preservation of access to the journal content by the University of Malaya Journal depository section at http://jati-dseas.um.edu.my and MyJournal at http://www.myjurnal.my/public/browse-journal-view.php?id=39
Editor and any editorial staff must keep confidential of all information about a submitted and review process of the manuscript to anyone except the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.
- Publication and Submission fee
Authors are freed from fees or charges for manuscript processing. Authors pay neither submission nor publication fee beyond eventual conference registration fee (in case conference paper accepted for publication).
- Open Access Policy
The journal is freely available online. Authors are required to agree with this open access policy which enables unrestricted access and reuse of all published articles. The articles are published under the Creative Commons copyright license policy CC-BY.
- Reporting standards
Authors of papers should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review and professional publication articles should also be accurate and objective, and editorial 'opinion' works should be clearly identified as such.
- Originality and Plagiarism
The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works and if the authors have used the work and words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.