Main Article Content
Involuntary migration is the coerced movement of people to a place away from their home of origin. Refugees are protected under international law, and they cross international borders to escape the risk of serious harm in their origin countries (UNHCR, 2019). At the end of 2018, approximately 25 million refugees had crossed international borders. However, there is another type of migrants that is not well defined nor protected by international law, which is the undocumented migrants. UNHCR has reported that refugees and undocumented migrants tend to flee to the nearest neighbouring countries, which are usually low and middle-income countries, rather than first world countries. This paper attempts to examine the effects of involuntary migration on the locals by investigating the widespread impacts that have occurred globally and reflect the situation to South-East Asian countries. A systematic review approach based on the PRISMA Statement was applied in this study. The Web of Science and Scopus scientific databases have identified 34 related studies on the effects of involuntary migrations. Six (6) categories of impacts have been identified, which include i) employment impact, ii) physical and environmental impact, iii) economic impact, iv) social and demographic impacts, v) facilities, welfare and educational impact and lastly vi) safety and security impacts. Reviewing the implications of involuntary migration can be a significant step forward for policymakers to improve their understanding of the issues, opportunity, and challenges faced by host countries in managing its people and resources. Underdeveloped and developing countries in the South-East Asian Region, including Malaysia, can plan to respond and address refugee influx in effective and efficient ways through proper resource planning and regulating legal and administrative framework.
Keywords: involuntary migration, refugee, undocumented migrants, migration impacts, host country, systematic literature review, SLR
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